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Alpine Permafrost Index Map (APIM)
Please download the new KMZ file for Google Earth below if yours predates November 7, 2018. This is necessary due to a server change. We apologize for any inconvenience.
The Alpine Permafrost Index Map (APIM) is publicly available and shows an index of the estimated
likelihood of permafrost occurrence for the entire Alps. The legend and the interpretation
key provide further information and allow the map user to
refine the interpretation of the color code shown on the map using more detailed information of the terrain considered.
The map is intended for practitioners such as public
outhorities or individuals involved in the construction and maintenance
of infrastructure in mountain areas.
The APIM has been modelled and designed
at the University of Zurich in collaboration with the University of Waterloo, Canada and within the scope
of the Alpine Space Interreg Project Permafrost
longterm monitoring network (PermaNET).
The APIM is available as a kmz overlay for Google Earth (download) and as a Web Mapping Service (https://geoserver.geo.uzh.ch/cryogis/wms, e.g. ArcCatalog: GIS Servers > Add WMS Server) for use in a GIS environment. In some regions of the Alps, high-resolution versions based on local digital elevation models with better quality than the ASTER GDEM used here have been computed. These have the same color legend and should in their interpretation be comparable to this pan-Alpine product. The availability of that data is decided upon by the commissioning authorities.
This map has been made possible through the PermaNET inventory of permafrost evidence
that has been initiated to collect a pan-Alpine coherent database. This
effort was largely the work of M. Philips and team at the WSL/SLF
Davos, Switzerland and E. Cremonese and team at the RAVA, Italy. The
content of this inventory is based on years of previous work by many
scientists and has been inserted into the system in a great
collaborative effort. For this, we thank:
Bodin X., Boeckli L.,
Broccard A., Cremonese E., Crepaz A., Crittin C., Curtaz M.,
Delaloye R., Fabre D., Garcia S., Gruber S., Hölzle M.,
Kellerer-Pirklbauer A., Keusen H.R., Kroisleitner C., Krysiecki J.M.,
Lambiel C., Lang K., Letey S., Lieb G., Mair V., Mari S.,
Monnier S., Morra di Cella U., Noetzli J., Paro L., Phillips
M., Pogliotti P., Ravanel L., Riedl C., Rovera
G., Scapozza C., Schoeneich P., Seppi R., Springman S.,
Walcher J., Zampedri G, Zischg A, and the Swiss Permafrost
Monitoring Network (PERMOS).
Furthermore we acknowledge W. Schöner and F. Paul
for providing Alpine-wide temperature data and glacier outline data.
We acknowledge the constructive feedback of A. Kellerer-Pirklbauer-Eulenstein, C. Huggel, A. Zischg, I. Gaertner-Roer and P. Schoeneich, which has helped to improve the map legend and interpretation key. Ronald Schmidt has kindly helped to set-up the first generation web mapping and kml server, Jörg Roth has performed the migration to geoserver in 2018.
This map has been generated at the University of Zurich, Switzerland in close collaboration with A. Brenning of the University of Waterloo, Canada. This effort was part of the PhD project of Lorenz Boeckli. This has been in part supported through the commissioning of local high-resolution maps in the framework of the project PermaNET.
Most computation has been performed using the Open Source tools RSAGA, R, and SAGA GIS. The precipitation data were provided by the ALP-IMP project. Landsat scenes were
available from GLOVIS.
References for the Generation of the APIM
- Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S. & Noetzli J. (2012): Permafrost distribution in the European Alps: calculation and evaluation of an index map and summary statistics, The Cryosphere, 6, 807820, doi:10.5194/tc-6-807-2012. [Link]
- Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S. & Noetzli J.
(2012): A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges, The Cryosphere, 6,125-140. doi:10.5194/tc-6-125-2012.
- Cremonese, E., S. Gruber, M. Phillips, P. Pogliotti, L. Boeckli, J. Noetzli, C. Suter, X. Bodin, A. Crepaz, A. Kellerer-Pirklbauer, K. Lang, S. Letey, V. Mair, U. Morra di Cella, L. Ravanel, C. Scapozza, R. Seppi, & A. Zischg (2011): Brief Communication: An inventory of permafrost evidence for the European Alps, The Cryosphere, 5, 651-657. doi:10.5194/tc-5-651-2011.
Other Key References for the APIM
- Azocar, G. F., & Brenning, A. (2010): Hydrological and Geomorphological Significance of Rock Glaciers in the Dry Andes, Chile (27 degrees–33 degrees S). Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 21(1), 42–53.
- Brenning, A. (2008): Statistical geocomputing combining R and SAGA: The example of landslide susceptibility analysis with generalized additive models. In J. Böhner, T. Blaschke & L. Montanarella (Eds.), SAGA - Seconds Out (pp. 23–32). Hamburg, Germany.
- Efthymiadis, D., Jones, P., Briffa, K., Auer, I., Böhm, R.,
Schöner, W., Frei, C., and Schmidli, J. (2006): Construction
of a 10-min-gridded precipitation data set for the Greater Alpine Region for
1800–2003. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D01105,
doi:10.1029/2005JD006120, 1425, 1439
- Gubler, S., Fiddes, J., Gruber, S. & Keller, M.
(2011): Measuring and analysis of scale dependent variability of ground surface
temperatures in alpine terrain. The Cryosphere, 5, 431–443,
- Hasler, A., Gruber, S. & Haeberli, W. (2011):
Temperature variability and thermal offset in steep alpine rock and ice faces. The
Cryosphere, 5, 977–988, doi:10.5194/tc-5-977-2011.
- Hayakawa, Y., Oguchi, T., and Lin, Z.: Comparison of new and
existing global digital elevation models (2008): ASTER G-DEM and SRTM-3.
Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L17404, doi:10.1029/2008GL035036, 1425
- Hiebl, J., Auer, I., Böhm, R., Schöner,
W., Maugeri, M., Lentini, G., Spinoni, J., Brunetti, M., Nanni, T., Percec
Tadic, M., Bihari, Z., Dolinar, M., and Müller-Westermeier, G. (2009): Meteorol. Z.,
18, 507–530, doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2009/0403, 2009. 1425, 1439
- Paul, F., Frey, H. and Le Bris, R. (2011): A new
glacier inventory for the European Alps from Landsat TM scenes of 2003:
Challenges and results. Annals of Glaciology, 52(59), 144–152.
Further Recommended Sources
- Harris, C., Arenson, L.U., Christiansen, H.H.,
B., Frauenfelder, R., Gruber, S., Haeberli,W., Hauck, C.,
M., Humlum, O., Isaksen, K., Kääb, A., Lehning, M.,
Lütschg, M.A., Matsuoka, N., Murton, J.B., Nötzli,
Phillips, M., Ross, N., Seppälä, M., Springman, S.M.
Vonder Mühll, D. (2009): Permafrost and climate in Europe:
geomorphological impacts, hazard assessment and geotechnical response.
Earth Science Reviews, doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.12.002.
- Riseborough, D., Shiklomanov, N., Etzelmüller, B.,
Gruber, S. & Marchenko, S. (2008): Recent advances in permafrost
modeling.Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19(2), 137–156, doi:
- PERMOS (2010): Permafrost in Switzerland 2006/2007 and
2007/2008. Noetzli, J. and Vonder Muehll, D. (eds.), Glaciological Report
(Permafrost) No. 8/9 of the Cryospheric Commission of the Swiss Academy
of Sciences, 68 pp.
- Gruber, S. & Haeberli, W. (2007): Permafrost in
slopes and its temperature-related destabilization following climate
change. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, F02S18, doi:
- Gruber, S. & Haeberli, W. (2009): Mountain
Permafrost Soils, edited by: Margesin, R., Biology Series Vol. 16,
Springer, 33–44, doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-69371-0_3.
- Noetzli, J. & Gruber, S. (2009): Transient thermal
effects in Alpine permafrost. The Cryosphere, 3, 85-99.
- Alpine Space Project Permafrost Longterm Monitoring
- Swiss Permafrost Monitoring Network: PERMOS
- Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost: GTNP
- National Snow and Ice Data Center: NSIDC
- Internatonal Permafrost Association: IPA
Stephan Gruber (now at Carleton University: homepage)
Glaciology, Geomorphodynamics & Geochronology
Department of Geography
University of Zurich
CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
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Furthermore, University of Zurich does not warrant or make any
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Zurich will not be liable for any consequential, incidental, or special
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